Plant proteins have been drawing increasing attention owing to their safety, abundance and relatively low cost in comparison with animal proteins. The development of plant protein-based delivery vehicles may lead to the provision of novel pharmaceutical products to patients. Zein is a class of alcohol-soluble prolamine proteins present in maize endosperm that was approved as a generally recognised as safe excipient in 1985 by the US FDA for use in pharmaceutical film coatings. Over the past few decades, numerous studies have been carried out to illustrate zein’s potential for novel applications in the biomedical field. This paper reviews the present status of zein-based nanofibres, with emphasis on their fabrication and biomedical applications, particularly for drug delivery. Their benefits andlimitations are also discussed to provide further insight into zein’s potential as a promising biomaterial.