Heavy metal pollution is a growing environmental problem in recent decades, which requires immediate and urgent action. In this article, we provide an overview of the works published in the last decade concerning the development of electrospinning-based micro- and nano-porous membranes for efficient heavy metal removal. Apart from their super-high surface-to-volume ratio, electrospun nanofibers possess a variety of surface groups which enable their further functionalization and functional nanoparticle incorporation. Compared to typical adsorbents, electrospun fibrous membranes are superior in many ways like higher permeation flux, lower pressure drop, flexible component adjustment, and even multi-target adsorption. Therefore, electrospun-based fibrous membranes hold great potential on the treatment of heavy metal contaminants.