The oxidized sodium carboxymethylcellulose (O-CMC) fibers have been successfully synthesized via the oxidation-etherification method. Subsequently, the O-CMC fibers are characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, the viscosity behaviors of the O-CMC aqueous solution have been investigated at five temperatures (25, 30, 40, 50 and 60 °C), six concentrations (30, 35, 40, 45, 50 and 60 kg/m3) and four shear rates (6, 12, 30 and 60 rpm). The results show that the viscosity of the O-CMC aqueous solution increases with increasing concentrations and decreases with increasing temperature. The viscosity of the O-CMC aqueous solution is found to exhibit a dilatant behavior. The dissolution rate in water of the O-CMC fibers is faster than that of the carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) fibers. It could be used as novel absorbable hemostatic fibers in surgery.